Intellego Vim guidelines from the core rule book states:
Powerful magic is easier to detect than weak magic: Base 1 InVi detects magic of 10th magnitude or higher, Base 5 detects anything.
But the magic detects "is there magic? yes/no", the description is somewhat vague and merely mentions "gives a fairly good idea of the strength". Of course further magnitudes added may or may not yield additional information. The examples given are +1 magnitude for Realm, +2 mags for Tech and Form. However this is not said specific for magical items, and while it does not exclude them either, the bulk of the InVi box seems IMHO concerned with investigating active magical spells and effects and residue.
Theoretically you could know an InVi spell to detect devices at several Bases, and start from the weakest and work your way up to the point where you detect the pawns used for the device.
Which brings me back to the quotes text:
..."pawns used to open the enchantment" - what does that mean? Does it mean "pawns used to open the device for enchantment"? In which case you know maximum 'space' of the item. Or, if it means "amount of vis used to enchant the effect" you are left wondering which of the effects detected if there are several...and by comparison to 'Investigating Magical Devices' you should only detect the weakest effect first. IMHO the first option is the right one: You detect the amount of vis used.
And since Invested Devices are usually powerful - because otherwise you could have made it as a Lesser Device - the amount of vis is likely to be large, so the device is easy to detect. Sure, there are some unique benefits for Invested- over Lesser Devices (like being able to enchant over several seasons, Effect Expiry) which may cause a magus to choose this, however it is more time- and vis consuming (two very valuable resources for a magus)
Anyway, InVi can relatively easy detect the maximum 'space' of a device. Once using 'Investigating Magical Devices' seasonal lab activity you detect the lowest effect within your rolled Lab Total, and keep rolling to detect the next-highest until you fail to detect anything else. By now you have a list of enchantments, and can add up the effect levels and hence the pawns used. The section on this activity is now wholly clear and detailed, but you seem to learn Tech and Form plus how to activate the effects. I assume you also learn the level plus things like uses per day and other modifications (like Pen). In no way can I imagine a scenario where the player doesn't get the details and hence the magus as well.
So it does seem the whole exercise of investigating devices isn't as tricky as indicated in the text, if you use a little InVi to begin with. And IMHO the descriptive text of this section seems to indicate that you do. If your InVi lab total is in any way useful to determine the effects of a device I'll bet good money you could also Spont a spell to determine the amount of vis, if a Troupe somehow decides this is not included in the activity. But it's a full season of work for crying out loud.
So it seems unlikely that a magus starts to invest an effect in a device and half-way through finds himself out of empty space in the item. Maybe, if he invests effects in an unidentified device. Because I don't see any mechanics to see how many pawns worth of effects are already invested. But as you can detect the amount of opened space (the potential, maximum space) it seems odd to me that you can't detect the power of the effects. After all - this is what you do if using the above guideline on a Lesser Device, you detect "an enchantment of 4 pawns" which a magus knows is level 31-40.
It may be that it requires two casting using this guideline: First one tells you either a) pawns used to open, so you know it's an Invested Device or b) pawns used to enchant the effect (singular) so you know it's Lesser. If the latter you don't need to cast anything else, if the former: Second casting tells you c) sum of pawns used for all enchantments. So you still don't know if those 10 pawns of effects detected is one huge power or 10 small ones. I'd be ok with that. Or if +1 mag for details gave you this. Details may even give Tech and Form, however for Invested Devices with multiple powers using different TeFo this becomes tricky - so I'm thinking no. That clause about details is IMHO for investigating spells.
But in any way you still need to spend (at least) one season to investigate in order to know the activation plus the particular modifications of the power. An 8th mag PeAn power could be a killer but only useful for mundane animals, or it could be a mere tickler but with huge Penetration.