By the RAW,
"Something, the connection, is an AC to something else, the target*, if the connection was very closely associated with the target, often by being part of it."
Learned members of these boards have argued persuasively that, in medieval philosophy, the original is not part of the lesser, only vice versa. Thus, an arm is part of the body, but the remaining body is not "part" of the arm.
However, a strong argument can be made that the original body was, indeed, "very closely associated" with the arm. So SG's who want to go the other way can do so without fear of going there without any support.
As RL says, it's another "Your Saga May Vary" situation.
However, the AC is not "Range:Self" - the thing must be destroyed, one way or another, either at Range:Arcane or by recovering it and proceeding accordingly, as the SG/Troupe determine.
(* Oooh, a third different use of the word "target"! wheeee! Where's my lightning bolt?!)
Now, as for the situation in question, I would have to raise my eyebrows (and they do have some bushiness!) at any Tribunal (other than Tremere-dominated) that would require more hoops to be jumped thru after an apprentice passes a gauntlet and pledges to the Oath. They simply have no legal right, imo.
In my view, at that moment, after gauntlet and upon pronouncing the Oath, the apprentice becomes a full-fledged mage, and has no less rights under the Code than the eldest archmage. And while it may be up to the Parens how and when to teach them, if the Parens fails to teach them at the end of apprenticeship, it smells of a crime to me, low tho' it may be. Parma is not specifically guaranteed by the Code, but it is a core part of the Hermetic Order and every mage in it - to deny it is to create "lesser magi", and thus deprive magical power to a full-fledged mage of the Order - which is a clear crime.
(Of course, if, somehow, inexplicably, a Tribunal did decide to go there, the apprentice(s) would have to wait for a Grand Tribunal to convene in order to press their case.)