CrAn spell to create mundane animal(s)

That's what the D:Ring is all about. So long as the integrity of the ring is preserved, the spell continues. So if you make a stone wall into a circle and put the sheep inside so that they can't get out, and cast the spell using the wall as its circle, the spell lasts indefinitively.

As for having to invent the spell, that is no different for a ritual spell. You still need to invent it. And lab texts for a D:Ring spell are just as likely to exist as that of the ritual. More likely, in fact, since rituals are less popular due to the vis cost.

If a mage has a mentor, or if the covenant-to-be has some ally or sponsor, a specialist might be willing to drop by to cast such spells for a small compensation or a future favour (I love those as ST). If there is no maintenance required for the spell, it could take him less than a season to travel, to the covenant, cast a few spells and come back. For a promise of favour, he might only expect to have the required virtus provided to him for the rituals.
Alternatively, unless the spell is really specific/customised, a casting tablet could be borrowed.

Ohh the ring, I did not realize. I doublechecked the book, I am never too confortable with rings being "permanent" unless broken they discourage the use of rituals and Vis. Yea that could be then a great way too. The only issue is that there are clear rules about doing "too big rings" asking for concentration checks. Concentration is seen as not a very usefull skill to my fellow players, so i doubt they have a great concentration. Wouldn´t you be limited by the "pen/circel" size in this case? I am quite sure there was a discouraging message about it being too big in the book.

The restriction on the size of the ring isn't too bad. It is mostly there to prevent going as large as a Boundary-sized area. So yes, a pen about 10 paces in diameter wouldn't be a problem even with a very low Concentration score.

Thats hardly posible. I started playing a Mistridge adventure, with 5e rules, after a while the crusade has begun and they fled to form a new covenant. They found an ally who has become a member in their covenant to form a covenant in crete in the Theban tribunal, but they have no other sponsor or magus to help them. Most of the other magi in provence tribunal are doing their own thing establishing new places or participating in the crusade.

Yes, so that's why something that can be cast spontaneously is better than something that needs to be cast ritually! You need to spend at least one season to invent a ritual, or at the very least procure a casting tablet for it (not always easy).

There is no way they can cast a 20+ spontaneous spell

Not even with a lot of vis?

Rings are limited to a few paces (about 3 meter) diameter only for rituals. Otherwise, Concentration check for each rounds (about 10 meters) walking around the Circle. A battle mage should have some Concentration (let's say +3). With a Stamina of +2, if the other mage with turb make sure that there is no distraction around, he should manage a decent circle (preferable made of 1 meter high stone wall to prevent any crossing/erasing), possibly without stress.
20 meters diameter = roughly 60 meter perimeter, so 6 rounds of concentration, against a EF 6 probably.
100 meters diameter = 310 meter perimeter, 31 rounds of concentration, that's probably asking for trouble, as I feel unlikely that the roll will be without stress, there is quite some pressure building up. But if somebody has Cautious with Concentration (not unheard of for battlemage), much more doable.

Depending on the saga, rituals can make sense for some things. In a saga where vis is plentiful, spending vis to create wealth can be ok.

But if the magi have trouble collecting enough vis to maintain a proper Aegis of the Hearth, bind their familiars, create longevity rituals, enchant their talismans (and other magical items) and purchase books to improve their library... then using ways to create wealth without using their precious vis will quickly be seen as desirable.

Edit: Raw vis is the ultimate currency of the magical world. It is often seen as just as valuable as time. A magus may spend a season in the lab extracting a handful of pawns. The value of a season for a young magus is often quoted as being 3 pawns of vis.

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I doubt any mage in my game has more than concentration 2. I may be wrong. But there is no cautious on concrentation, neither something similar.

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Its a saga where the vis is plentiful. The only scarce one is the vim one, but can be traded. The usual trade i ask for is 3 of most pawns, but for creo, corpus and some usefull ones, for the first trades, and 4 or 5 if they need a hell of a lot of vis vim.

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I am going on a limp, there, but since your mages seems quite limited in allies, mentors or friendly covenants, I assume that their turbula is also quite small. Possibly one companion per mage and a couple of grogs (including servants and shield grogs), so the initial needs is relatively small.

On an Island, some ReAn can make a one-day monthly chores for a mage for a miraculous fishing, then let them be prepared and dry under the sun by the grogs.
Other spell can extract salt from water, another sources of income that won't destabilize the economy too quickly - you can trade it for other goods, and you will need it to salt the fish you will be drying.

Very likely, the first priority would be to secure a Glassblower, that's one of the main mage expenses. On a island, sand will be readily available, minor items (requiring 1 paw/10 level effect, no Vim required - just to emphasize your needs :slight_smile: ) can be used by craftsmen, who will use their craft ability instead of Finesse. It can speed up the process, but as long as you are reasonable, the penalty on the crafting roll will remains manageable for standard quality items.

So you might have to craft a couple of items, one to turn sand into glass, one to turn glass into a finished form (p51, Covenants, The Invisible Glass worker, ReTe 4, with 50 use per day, for a 1 pawn minor item, that a steal !), similar magnitude to convert sand into glass - a different version of The Spell of Wrought Iron.

Create similar items for masonry and blacksmithing - each time it will cost between one and two pawns, maximum three. Since these are common items for a covenant, especially a Spring covenant, to have, securing labtext should not cost more than a pawn per labtext, so mage don't even need to double the effect level to create the item. Toss a pawn to a Redcap for diligent delivery, and within a season you should have what you need.

If every mage works according to its specialty, within a year, the covenant will be operational, and can focus on more lucrative projects.

The advantage of these items is that it bypasses the need to have full workshop, at least initially. And it should be enough to equip all mages with standard labs with a few seasons.

Finally, making an robust circle is quite simple: carve a groove into the ground (soft soil works equally well), pour lead (because of it relatively low melting point compare to other metal and you don't want to waste good iron for that but any metal will do), let set. You have a circle that cannot be destroyed by accidentally stepping on it. To have a perfect Circle, use Re(Cr)Te to adjust the shape to perfection (base 3 to adjust the groove prior to the pour, base 3+2 (metal) to adjust the lead circle after the pour), no Finesse required as it draws from the Realm of Shape (p96, the Mysteries). Build the fence/pen/stone wall inside the circle and your are good to cast Ring duration effect!


I am always VERY hit or miss on the Circle/Ring spells that seem to last forever. One point I want to make for this example, as soon as you take any part of the created Targets out of the ring, the spell ends for all of them.

You have to look at each of the categories of expenses and think about how you could reduce them. While creating silver with a ritual can pay for all of them, it causes inflation and can draw the ire of the Order so is something that really should only be done in extreme moderation. Many Tribunals have measures restricting the wealth creation magic of all Covenants to 2 pounds of silver per magus per year (HoH:TL, p.87).

So what are the categories that we can cover? Buildings, Consumables, Provisions, and Wages are the big four for cost though we will ignore Wages since covering it involves wealth creation. Weapons & Armor, Laboratories, and Writing Materials are the smaller. Outside of strange circumstances we want to focus on the first three, which each individually tend to be larger than all of the smaller combined.

Buildings Expense
This expense covers maintenance, decoration, and furnishing of the Covenants buildings and is 10% of Inhabitants plus Fortification Boons cost. It also has a very high limit of 50% per Craft which means it can be offset by just focusing on two types. This is generally the cheapest of the big four So what can we do to reduce this cost?

Maintenance is the easiest. Sure you could try to directly replace craftsmen, but most of those items require finesse. You are better served by non-finesse items which improve the efficiency of craftsmen or reduce waste. An example is an item with a variation of 'Rock of Viscid Clay' effect which does both of those. It lets the craftsmen easily fix damage and allows them to use scrap rock as filler. You can do similar things with other Forms to cover different building materials.

Another way to reduce cost is something that helps produce raw materials. If you have a lot of wooden buildings (or even partially wooden) then an item that causes plants to grow to maturity rapidly can offset a portion of your cost. Items that provide finishing on raw materials such as speeding up the dressing of stone or seasoning of wood also help here.

Another type of item that is useful are Intellego effects which can be used to judge the quality/condition of buildings and material. Allowing your craftsmen to know when something needs to be repaired/replaced before it can normally be determined or if a set of replacement material is good is a valid way of cutting cost.

Actually producing glass from raw materials is more difficult and requires a Finesse roll, but you can target a low quality if you have an effect that does the actual shaping. Effects which turn glass to liquid for a short time can be used to create windows easily, including using scraps from broken ones. Covenants with access to quartz can use it as a replacement for glass with a similar "change to liquid" effect. It is also far easier to make stained glass when you do not have to melt it.

Something I don't think most consider is that illusion magic can serve as an effective way of providing decoration which does not deteriorate. Not something that most SG will allow a massive amount of savings from, but for larger Covenants even a max of 10% of the Building can be north of 10 pounds per year.

For Covenants with docks, you can create items which have a PeTe effect to destroy sentiment the clearing of which was a major expense. There is a cannon example of this as a rod that destroys dirt.

Consumable Expense
This expense is 20% of the Inhabitants and has a lower limit of 20% per Craft. So while it requires a wider range of items to fully offset it covers such a broad range that it is not very difficult. This category is mostly made up of items that are destroyed by use, even if that destruction can take a long time (clothing and wagon wheels).

Magical lights are the easiest saving here and most likely the most common in the Order. Enchanted lamps are cheap at 9 levels and 1 pawn each, with a given Magus often able to create several a season with lab text. Each of those is a 1.8 pound savings per year (up to that 20% limit). You could do larger enchantments for things like whole buildings.

Magical heat is another area. This does not just cover keeping warm but also things like cooking and supplying forges. So ovens and forges that produce their own heat reduce this. An enchanted item that creates Moon duration firewood is another good example.

Some of the items that reduced Building cost can be used here as well. Repairs of things like wagons are part of this expense so if you have items that can help with wood or metal (cooper, carpenter or tinker) then you can use them to save some money here.

Items which improve the quality or help repair clothing are another possibility. My Covenant uses presses which change cloth to a mud like consistency for a round. This can be used to repair tears and makes the cloth a monolithic material which is more resistant to damage.

Provisions Expense
This is the big one at 50% of the Inhabitants (plus larger animals) and uses the lower limit of 20% per Craft (plus 50% from Laborers). While the examples in Covenants only list two craftsmen to offset it (brewer and vintner), anything that helps produce or preserve food or drink is a valid choice.

Preserving items are a fairly easy choice. While you could do things like wards to keep out vermin or enchantments to protect against rot (TtA, p.93 has two such), there are other methods. Covenants has a CrAn and CrHe Base 2 (p.50 and p.51) which prevent animal bodies and dead plants from decaying. You can also use enchantments which cause an area to be cold or freezing, which can not only serve like a modern refrigerator or freezer but allow the actual production of ice. Just making an area cold is also beneficial to dry aging meat products (whole or things like sausages).

Providing clean water for drinking and cooking can also be useful, especially for Covenants located in areas with not much water. Access to potable water was a serious issue through much of human history. So enchanted items which move or clean water can be a valid means of cost savings. Movement is fairly easy with a range of ReAq options, but cleaning is often more difficult. For Covenants with access to lots of salt water, PeAq effects can be used to destroy the saltiness. MuAq effects can be used which separate the water into clean and contaminated portions. You could even build a large layered filter and use ReAq to move water into it.

For your more adult beverages you have many options. Rough processing of the ingredients (crushing grapes, milling grain), motion that animates the stirring of vats or makes rotating barrels easier, separation of the liquid from solids, and effects which increase the rate of fermentation (directly or indirectly) can all be used. You could even get way out there and introduce a magic still, allowing large scale production of distilled spirits a few centuries before it became common (the technology was already around for nearly half a millennia for small scale distilled alcohol production).

Anything that helps your plants grow rapidly is a possible "cost saving". Items can cause all plants in a green house to grown well or not become sick. For plants with an annual harvest you can use effects that cause them to blossom out of season which can greatly increase your total yield. An item that brings trees to maturity rapidly can be used to create massive fruit and nut orchards in very little time. Water movement effects are useful for irrigation. Wards can be used to keep out pest. You can produce effects which till the land. Items which allow controlling bees can also be useful.

For animals anything which allows controlling them can make herding easier and so serve as a cost savings. For those hunting/fishing, effects can be used to replace the need for bait. Illusions are the easiest and have a few cannon examples.

EDIT: There are many food animals which are classified as Vermin. If you have access to the appropriate matter that they generate from, then you can use the ReAn Base 5 (A&A, p.30) to spontaneously generate them from that matter. You could also use Creo Moon duration effects to create the matter, even better if it has a Constant effect so that it generates automatically twice a day. You could use these items to boost up a pound to produce a massive amount of vermin which could both be consumed and would boost the population of fish due to the abundance of food.

General Effects (and the smaller expenses)
For Laboratory expenses you generally want craftsmen. Skilled craftsmen can allow you to get the Superior Equipment and Superior Tools Lab Virtues for free, which will often be a larger reduction in total cost and boost in effectiveness than what you will get from any Covenant enchanted items. Any effect which helps with glass or metal can be used though normally it is better to put it towards one of the more expensive expenses.

Weapons & Armor and Writing Materials fall into much the same problem. They are generally low and can be offset by a couple of craftsmen without any enchanted items, with enchanted items often producing better results put to one of the larger expenses. They are both generally better served by a couple of craftsmen each which can generally cover all of their cost. However if you do have a massive military force you might consider a couple of items for Weapons & Armor which can also be used in other categories. For Writing Materials it is almost never worth it to devote cost saving enchanted items for Covenant use since a pair of even mid tier craftsmen (skill 4 or 5) can offset all of it and they are a type that cannot be readily used in other categories. Save those for improving Income Sources.

There are some effects which can easily jump between the varies Expenses. Things like self motive wheels can be used to power mills which could fall into any of the three. Grain mills for Provisions, lumber for Building and Consumables. They could even power things like bellows and whetstones which would allow them to be used for cost savings in Weapons & Armor or Laboratory Expenses.

Another thing to take into account is how effective an enchanted item/ritual is for increasing a Source of Income is not really covered in the rules. It is something that individual SG need to decide upon so you can often get a better "bang for buck" (Cov, p.57, last paragraph). An item that might only be a cost savings of 5 pounds per year could provide up to a 50% permanent increase to an Income Source. Granted that is an extreme example and more likely to be in the 5~20% range.

Looking at things more realistically, should you take a 5 pound cost savings or a 5% increase in an Income Source? The Income Source of course, because all increases compound. It adds up fairly quickly. Taking five 5 pound cost savings is only 25 pounds total, while taking five 5% increases is over 27.6%. Additionally that 27.6% can increase further every year and any additional increases compound it.

Do not focus all of your efforts on increasing Sources of Income, since they are subject to chance and outer influences far more than Cost Savings. Compare to investing, with SoI being 'high risk' and CS being 'low risk'. You want a mix to get the most you can without over exposing yourself. How risky an individual group wants to be is up to them but generally a balanced approach will give the most consistent results.

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The ReHe Guideline says "make a tree blossom out of season", I assume this could also affect a bush or flower for that matter. But blossom, not bear fruit - that would happen naturally later.
But this is nowhere near the CrHe guideles to "bring a plant to maturity".

IMHO for such an effect to be valuable as an economic source, or to create building materials, I'd want the CrHe to cause a bunch of seeds or acorne to become trees in a day, rather than the more aeastetically minded ReHe co get flowers.

That's not really a big deal. If you are creating non-ritual sheep at D:Ring (or, smarter: D:Conc boosted to D:Ring with the always-useful D:Ring variant of Maintain the Demanding Spell), you probably want to create them one at a time with T:Ind rather than with T:Group. Unless you are aiming for a truly gigantic herd, it won't take a magus more than a day.

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Again, once the sheep has left the ring, the magic is gone. The sheep is the Target, and if it leaves the Ring, the Ring is considered broken, for that sheep.

Sure. For that single sheep. If you have a herd, it's not a big deal if one steps out of the Ring. If anything, the sight of it dropping dead as soon as it leaves will urge others to stay inside :slight_smile: A ... suggestion that can be achieved with a ReAn 5 effect too, by the way: Base2, +1Touch, +2Ring, +0 Circle.

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Sure, but then what do you get from the herd? And you'd need a big ring to make it work for a herd, as they will graze the ground so nothing grows there easily. And a big ring will take you time, and with lots of Concentration rolls any of which you might botch, ruining the entire attempt.