What makes up the Kaba'ir is a very complicated question that honestly is beyond the scope of a game text. There is essentially no consensus on a list beyond the idea that shirk al akbar (shirk is often separated into grades) is the gravest sin. There isn't a listing of them in the (classical Sunni) hadith literature or the Qur'an itself. Imam Abu Hamid Muhammad Al-Ghazali, who is already a great authority by game start, discusses some of the variance of opinion even from the Sahaba and Tabi'un in his famous Revival of the Religious Sciences:
Sins are divided into venial and mortal. There is much disagreement about them. Some say: There is no venial or mortal [sin], rather, every transgression of God's command is mortal sin. This is weak since God said: If you avoid the major sins forbidden to you, We will absolve you of your lesser misdeeds and admit you into a place of honour. . . and the Prophet said: `The five prayers and Friday [communal prayer] to the next, atone for what is between them, if major sins are avoided' and in another version, ' . . . are expiations for what [comes] between them except the mortal sins.' The Companions and Followers differed in [setting] the number of mortal sins. [It ranged] from four, to seven, to nine, to eleven or more. Ibn Mas'ud said: 'They are four.' Ibn 'Umar said: 'They are seven.' Abdullah b. 'Amr said: 'They are nine.' When Ibn 'Umar's statement, that their number is seven, reached Ibn 'Abbas, he would say: 'They are closer to seventy than seven.'
Imam al-Ghazali then, quite reasonably imho, sets aside the idea of constructing a definitive list altogether:
Major sin, then, is lexically vague and has no specific connotation, either lexicography or in law. This is due to the fact that 'major' and 'minor' are modifiers. Any sin is major in comparison to what is beneath it and minor in comparison to what is above it....To strive for a comprehensive definition or a definite figure is to strive for the impossible. For this is impossible except by hearing the Prophet of God say: 'By mortal sins I meant ten or five,' and list them. But as this is not reported...it becomes clear that no specific number was meant. How could one then aspire to set a number when the divine law does not?
al-Ghazali instead decides to provide general classes of sin that should be considered major:
Anything, then, which is in the way of perception of God is the gravest of mortal sin, the next being that which is destructive of human life, and the next is that which impedes the livelihood of the people. These are three stages.
al-Ghazali's ultimate position on major sin owes much to his studies on question of the Maqasid al-Shari'a - the Higher Objectives or Intents of the Law: the guiding principles which Muslim legal theorists considered to stand above law itself and were determined by attempts at close readings of the Qur'an and Sunnah. This field would be really brought into its own by an Andalusian scholar born exactly a hundred years after game start named Abu Ishaq Ibrahim al-Shatibi, but it had been a topic of study since at least Imam al-Tirmidhi wrote on maqasid in the 800s. I'd say the broadly Ghazalian position which could roughly be called the mainstream take in Sunni scholarship (as much as there is one at all) on this question at game start. Sadr al-Din Konevi, the son in law and major student of "Greatest Shaykh/Shaykh al-Akbar" Ibn al-Arabi who becomes the most major legal thinker and philosopher of Seljuk Rum in his own right, puts the opinion well when he says major sin is...
..that which poses a serious threat to human
life, the livelihood and prosperity of man, the progeny of families, the maintainence of religion, and the safeguarding of the faculty of reason.
Which again is a much more fluid way of considering the question. Now, this is far from "Islam's position on Major Sin" - hopefully I've gotten across that the idea of listing The Opinion (tm) is a fool's errand - but it is probably the one closest to a consensus among major Sunni usuliyyun (legal theorists) at the time that Ars Magica games tend to be played. Honestly, it might be wise to include a section talking about the multiplicity of opinions plus al-Ghazali's three classes of major sin in some future version of RoP: The Divine. @silveroak certainly did good to open the question.
Meh, there's a huge variety of period opinions here as well (you may now be detecting a pattern.) Internet search results don't tend to be representative of that diversity. Much of it is to do with the often not great translations used for the array of Arabic words employed in describing "magical" practice. Our friend al-Ghazali once again elaborates on what is roughly the mainstream Sunni take in 1220:
As for sorcery, if it contains unbelief it is a mortal sin; if not, its gravity depends upon the damage or good which results from it, such as loss of life, sickness or the like.
Unless it is explicitly pagan, the morality of "sorcery" depends on what you do with it, according to al-Ghazali. It's true, though, that jinn summoning tends to be one of the more sketchy kinds - the more intellectual connotations surrounding late antique theurgy as practiced by Neoplatonists like Iamblichus or talismanic magic are often more in tune with the inclinations of the ulema - but there is certainly ikhtilaf (can be translated as "scholarly difference of opinion concerning a religio-legal matter") on this question.